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Edward I Plantagenet "Longshanks" King O England

Edward I Plantagenet "Longshanks" King O England[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

Male 1239 - 1307  (68 years)

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  • Name Edward I Plantagenet "Longshanks" King O England 
    Born 17 Jun 1239  Westminster Palace, London, Middlesex, England Find all individuals with events at this location  [6, 7, 8, 9
    Christened 21 Jun 1239  , Westminster, Middlesex, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Died 7 Jul 1307  Burgh-on-The-Sand near Carlisle, Cumberland, England Find all individuals with events at this location  [6, 7, 8, 9
    Age 68 years 
    Buried 28 Oct 1307  Westminster Abbey, London, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Notes 
    • [Source: Who's Who in the Middle Ages, John Fines, Barnes & Noble Books,New York, 1995]

      Edward I was born at Westminster in 1239, and was named for his fatherHenry III's favourite saint, Edward the Confessor. He was heir to widedomains and many troubles, and had an early taste of both. In 1252 he wasgiven charge of the troublesome but lucrative Gascon territories. Twoyears later he was married to Eleanor of Castile---a political marriage,but one that was to turn into a love-match.

      There was little time to enjoy it at first, for Edward was now pitchedinto the discords of the English baronial revolt. His father was neithera good leader of men, nor a good soldier, so the burden was thrust uponhis young son. The barons' leader, Simon de Montfort, was Edward's uncle,and there is no doubt that the prince was both attracted to his uncle'sideas of government, and also deeply influenced by his military tactics.But after the defeat at Lewes, and a humiliating imprisonment, hisadmiration turned to hostility, which was only sated with the rout ofEvesham in 1265.

      In the next few years he acted as a moderating influence on his father'svindictive wrath, and saw to it that the settlement with the baronialopposition should not in itself provoke a further uprising.

      In 1270 he was at last able to go off on crusade, when he brought reliefto Acre. His military reputation now soared, and in 1272 he suffered anattack from an assassin, in which he was grazed by a poisoned dagger inthe scuffle. He recovered, and was able to negotiate a ten-year trucebefore returning home, covered with honour.

      On landing in Sicily he heard of his father's death, but he did not hurryto get back to England, spending a whole year settling his affairs inGascony first. It was 1274 before England saw him. Once properly seatedon the throne, however, he gave every evidence of his vigour anddetermination to rule. Within two months of the coronation, commissionerswere scouring the land completing a survey as large and efficient as anythat had been understaken since Domesday. The commissioners enquired intoencroachments upon royal rights, and into injustices committed by theking's servants; their detailed reports are know to historians as theHundred Rolls, based as they were on the administrative unit of thehundred.

      The evidence of the Hundred Rolls was to be the basis of Edward'slegislative reforms. A long series of statutes, enacted at the enlargedparliaments introduced by Simon de Montfort, aimed at the improvement ofjustice at the local as well as the national level, and also tried torationalise the bewildering array of jurisdictions, known as liberties,the feudal government had seen grow up. Edward had a genuine concern tosee justice done, which gained for him the deep admiration of hissubjects. He was also very well informed about the localities, for he wasconstantly on the move, covering distances of about 2,000 miles a year,with a court of perhaps a thousand horses lumbering behind him on themuddy and dangerous medieval roads.

      Much larger groups travelled with him when he went to war, and Wales wasthe first to see his unwelcome visitation. Llewellyn, Prince of Wales,had rather foolishly refused to do homage for his lands at Edward'scoronation, and in 1277 the King attacked and reduced his dominions byhalf. Five years later the Prince's brother David rose in rebellion, andLlewellyn was forced to join him, only to be killed in a petty foray.With no great leader left to them, the Welsh submitted to annexation, andsaw gigantic castles rise in key-points such as Conway, Caernarvon andHarlech, castles that would prevent future revolt. Edward was an arrantcolonist, and typically brought back from Wales the great cross of Neathto carry in procession to Westminster for the service of thanksgiving.The Abbey was to see many more proud trophies plundered for itsdecoration and distinction.

      Edward was eager to be off to Palestine once more, but the Europeansituation prevented a new crusade: France and Aragon struggled over thebody of Sicily, and the Pope was hopelessly committed as a partisan.Edward now spent long months attempting to bring peace to Europe so thatthe Christian nations could unite in crusade.

      His design for Europe was interrupted by troubles at home. In hisprolonged absence corruption throve, and in 1289 the King was forced toconduct an enquiry which resulted, among other things, in the banishmentof his chief justice. The same year he had to go north to convene thecourt that was to judge between the various 'competitors' for the throneof Scotland. The legalism fascinated him, but in the middle of thisinteresting judicial wrangle, his wife died. He was heartbroken, and ashe accompanied the body from Lincolnshire to London, he ordered elaboratecrosses to be set up wherever the cort├Ęge rested. The last was CharingCross. A most beautiful monument was set up in Westminster Abbey, andthose who view it can see something of Edward's loss.

      Back in Scotland he finally adjudged John Balliol's claim for the crownto be the best, but forced him to accept vassal status as a quid pro quo.Years of trouble lay ahead: the French made war, the Welsh rebelled, andthe Pope made life extrememly difficult for the hard-pressed Englishking. He continued to demand Edward's presence on crusade---which hewould have dearly loved, but found impossible; his only contribution wasthe expulsion of Jews in 1290. Furthermore the Pope had suddenly issued aBull declaring that the state had no right to tax the clergy, and Edwardwas desperately short of money for war on three fronts.

      These diffficulties explain but do not excuse the viciousness of hisactions in the next few years. Scotland had refused to accept him asoverlord, and he annexed the land, deposed Balliol, and removed the Stoneof Scone to Westminster Abbey in 1296. When Wallace rose as a leader inScotland, Edward increased the fury of his attack; the rebels received nomercy.

      Gradually the King seemed to be achieving his aims. France was satisfiedby his marriage to the sister of the French king, and by 1304 Scotlandseemed well under his heel, controlled by a policy of ruthless savagery.Edward could at last turn his attention back to English affairs, wheredisorder was rampant. New justices were sent round on the 'Trailbaston'commission to seek out the unsavoury Robin Hoods of the land, andgradually order returned.

      Inagine then the fury of the aged king when, in 1306, Robert Bruce, whohad been his man for the past four years, suddenly went north and wascrowned King of Scots. Old, tired, and sick, Edward moved up country todeal with this fresh menace to peace, but was taken very ill on the way.He had to direct the campaign from his bed, and vitriolic lettersshowered on his commanders accusing them of inaction and failure.

      In a last tremendous effort the King got up and gave his litter toCarlisle Cathedral---a typical gesture, again---and set off on horseback.The progress was desperately slow---some two miles a day---but even thatwas too fast for the sick king, who quickly succumbed and died in July1307.

      Son and father of weak and inefffectual kings, Edward I had many finequalities which seem to make nonsence of heredity. He was tall andstrong, a fine horseman and a doughty warrior. A great leader of men, hewas also able to lead to success. He was interested in government and lawin a very genuine way. As a personality he was pious, but easily provokedto rage and often vindictive. He was fond of games---so passionately didhe love his hawks that when they were ill he sent money to shrines topray for their recovery. He was generous to the poor, and often a gaycompanion: he played chess, and loved music and acrobats; once he bet hislaundress Matilda that she couldn't ride his charger, and she won! EveryEaster Monday he paid ransom to his maids if they found him in bed. Heloved his two wives, and fussed over their health and that of hischildren with a pathetic concern---sometimes threatening the doctor withwhat would happen to him if his patient did not recover. His peoplefeared, respected and remembered him.

      [Source: Who's Who in the Middle Ages, John Fines, Barnes & Noble Books,New York, 1995]
    Person ID I2059  Wilson-Maynard Family Tree
    Last Modified 16 Dec 2002 

    Father Henry III Plantagenet King of England,   b. 1 Oct 1207, Winchester Castle, Winchester, Hampshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 16 Nov 1272, Westminster Palace, London, Middlesex, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 65 years) 
    Mother Eleanor Laeonor of Provence, Countess,   b. 1217, Aix-en-Provence, Bouches-du-Rhone, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 25 Jun 1291, Amesbury, Wiltshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 74 years) 
    Married 14 Jan 1236  Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England Find all individuals with events at this location  [10, 11, 12, 13
    Family ID F908  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 1 Eleanor Princess of Castile,   b. 1244, Burgos, Castile, Spain Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 28 Nov 1290, Grantham, Lincolnshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 46 years) 
    Married 18 Oct 1254  Burgos, Spain Find all individuals with events at this location  [6, 7, 8, 9
    Children 
     1. Eleanor Plantagenet, , Princess of England,   b. 17 Jun 1264, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1318, Ghent, Flanders, Belgium Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 53 years)
     2. John Prince of England,   b. 10 Jul 1266, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1 Aug 1272  (Age 6 years)
     3. Henry Prince of England,   b. 1267/1268, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Abt 14 Oct 1274  (Age 6 years)
     4. Juliana or Katherine Princess of England,   b. 1271, , Akko, Hazafon, Israel Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1271, , Akko, Hazafon, Israel Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 0 years)
     5. Joan "of Acre" Plantagenet, , Princess of England,   b. 1272, Acre, Hazafon, Palestine Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 23 Apr 1307, Clare, Suffolk, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 35 years)
     6. Alphonso Prince of England,   b. 24 Nov 1273, , Bayonne, Basses-Pyrenees, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 19 Aug 1284  (Age 10 years)
     7. Isabel Princess of England,   b. Abt 1274, of, Windsor Castle, Berkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location
     8. Margaret of England, Princess,   b. 11 Sep 1275, Windsor Castle,Windsor,Berkshire,England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1318, BRUSSELS Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 42 years)
     9. Berengaria Princess of England,   b. 1276, , Kennington, Berkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Abt 1277/1279  (Age 3 years)
     10. Mary Princess of England,   b. 11 Mar 1278, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Bef 22 Jul 1232, Unmarried Find all individuals with events at this location
     11. Alice Princess of England,   b. 12 Mar 1279, Palace, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1291, Unmarried Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 11 years)
     12. Elizabeth Plantagenet, , Princess of England,   b. Aug 1282, Rhuddlan Castle, Flintshire, Wales Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 5 May 1316, Quendon, Essex, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 33 years)
     13. Beatrice Princess of England,   b. 1286, , Toulouse, Haute-Garonne, France Find all individuals with events at this location
     14. Blanche Princess of England,   b. 1290, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location
     15. Edward II Plantagenet King of England,   b. 25 Apr 1284, Caernarvon Castle, Caernarvonshire, Wales Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 21 Sep 1327, Berkeley Castle, Thornbury, Gloucestershire, England (murdered) Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 43 years)
    Family ID F906  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 2 Marguerite Le Hardi, Princess of France,   b. 1279, Paris, Seine, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 14 Feb 1316/1317, Marlborough Castle, Marlborough, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 38 years) 
    Married 8 Sep 1299  Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England Find all individuals with events at this location  [6, 7, 8, 9
    Children 
     1. Thomas "of Brotherton" Prince of England ;[Earl of Norfolk],   b. 1 Jun 1300, Brotherton, Yorkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. ABT. Aug 1338, Norfolk, England (dspms) Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 38 years)
     2. Edmund Plantagenet, , 1st Earl of Kent,   b. 5 Aug 1301, Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 19 Mar 1329/1330, Beheaded at Winchester, Hampshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 28 years)
    Family ID F902  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 3 Queen Eleanors Lady In Waiting,   b. 1244 
    Children 
     1. Lucy Corona,   b. Abt 1268
    Family ID F907  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBorn - 17 Jun 1239 - Westminster Palace, London, Middlesex, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMarried - 18 Oct 1254 - Burgos, Spain Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMarried - 8 Sep 1299 - Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsDied - 7 Jul 1307 - Burgh-on-The-Sand near Carlisle, Cumberland, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsBuried - 28 Oct 1307 - Westminster Abbey, London, England Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Earth 

  • Photos
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  • Sources 
    1. [S14426] The Magna Charta Sureties 1215, Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Sheppard Jr, 5th Edition, 1999, 18-5, 63-6, 161-14, 13-6.

    2. [S14616] The Magna Charta Sureties 1215, Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Sheppard Jr, 5th Edition, 1999, 18-5, 63-6, 161-14, 13-6.

    3. [S14540] Ancestral File (R), The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, (Copyright (c) 1987, June 1998, data as of 5 January 1998).

    4. [S14286] The Magna Charta Sureties 1215, Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Sheppard Jr, 5th Edition, 1999, 18-5, 63-6, 161-14.

    5. [S14311] The Magna Charta Sureties 1215, Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Sheppard Jr, 5th Edition, 1999, 18-5, 63-6, 161-14, 13-6.

    6. [S14426] The Magna Charta Sureties 1215, Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Sheppard Jr, 5th Edition, 1999, 161-14.

    7. [S14616] The Magna Charta Sureties 1215, Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Sheppard Jr, 5th Edition, 1999, 161-14.

    8. [S14286] The Magna Charta Sureties 1215, Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Sheppard Jr, 5th Edition, 1999, 161-14.

    9. [S14311] The Magna Charta Sureties 1215, Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Sheppard Jr, 5th Edition, 1999, 161-14.

    10. [S14286] The Magna Charta Sureties 1215, Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Sheppard Jr, 5th Edition, 1999, 161-13.

    11. [S14433] Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1-27.

    12. [S14426] The Magna Charta Sureties 1215, Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Sheppard Jr, 5th Edition, 1999, 161-13.

    13. [S14422] Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1-27.